Category: Factors of conversion

Conversion of units is the conversion between different units of measurement for the same quantitytypically through multiplicative conversion factors. The process of conversion depends on the specific situation and the intended purpose. This may be governed by regulation, contracttechnical specifications or other published standards. Engineering judgment may include such factors as:.

Some conversions from one system of units to another need to be exact, without increasing or decreasing the precision of the first measurement. This is sometimes called soft conversion.

It does not involve changing the physical configuration of the item being measured. By contrast, a hard conversion or an adaptive conversion may not be exactly equivalent. It changes the measurement to convenient and workable numbers and units in the new system. It sometimes involves a slightly different configuration, or size substitution, of the item.

A conversion factor is used to change the units of a measured quantity without changing its value. The unity bracket method of unit conversion [1] consists of a fraction in which the denominator is equal to the numerator, but they are in different units. Because of the identity property of multiplication, the value of a quantity will not change as long as it is multiplied by one. So as long as the numerator and denominator of the fraction are equivalent, they will not affect the value of the measured quantity.

The following example demonstrates how the unity bracket method [3] is used to convert the rate 5 kilometers per second to meters per second.

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The symbols km, m, and s represent kilometer, meter, and second, respectively. There are many conversion tools. They are found in the function libraries of applications such as spreadsheets databases, in calculators, and in macro packages and plugins for many other applications such as the mathematical, scientific and technical applications.

There are many standalone applications that offer the thousands of the various units with conversions. For example, the free software movement offers a command line utility GNU units for Linux and Windows. The condensate's healing length is given by:. For a 23 Na condensate with chemical potential of Boltzmann constant times nK, the calculation of healing length in microns can be done in two steps:.Use this Conversion Calculator to convert between commonly used units.

Select the current unit in the left column, the desired unit in the right column, and enter a value in the left column to generate the resulting conversion.

A full list of unit conversions is available at unitconverters. Historically, many different systems of units have been used, where a system of units is defined as a collection of units of measurement with rules that relate them to each other. A unit of measurement is a defined magnitude of a quantity that it used as a standard for measurement for the same kind of quantity, such as measurements of length, weight, and volume.

In the past, many systems of measurement were defined on a local level, and could be based on factors as arbitrary as the length of a king's thumb.

While this may work on a local level, when considering trade, as well as science, having systems of units based on units that others may not be able to relate to or understand makes interaction difficult. As such, the development of more universal and consistent systems developed over time. Today, some of the systems of units in use include the metric system, the imperial system, and the United States customary units. The International System of Units SI is the standard metric system that is currently used, and consists of seven SI base units of length, mass, time, temperature, electric current, luminous intensity, and amount of substance.

Although SI is used almost universally in science including in the USsome countries such as the United States still use their own system of units. This is partly due to the substantial financial and cultural costs involved in changing a measurement system compared to the potential benefit of using a standardized system.

As such, many unit converters including this Conversion Calculator exist, and will continue to do so to ensure that people globally are able to communicate different measurements effectively. The Arabs used coins as a measurement of units of weight since a minted coin could not easily be cut or shaved to reduce its weight, and thus provided a measurable standard.

They used a coin called a silver dirhem as a basic measure of weight, which had a weight roughly equivalent to 45 fully grown grains of barley. Ten dirhems comprised a Wukryeh which was translated into Latin as an "uncia" — the origin of the word "ounce.

Over time, trade spread from the Mediterranean area to Europe, including the northern German City States. As a result, a pound, 16 ounces of silver, or grains, became a commonly used measure in many regions. While England also adopted this measure, a shortage of silver caused King Offa to reduce the measurement of the pound to grains in order to use smaller coins.

Eventually, when William the Conqueror became King of England, he retained the grain pound for minting coins, but reverted to the grain pound for other purposes. Though many countries used the pound from that point onward, including England the British pound sterling, or GBP was equal to one pound-weight of silver in King Offa's timethe avoirdupois weight system was adopted during the reign of Queen Elizabeth in the 16th century. It was a system based on the weight of coal, and its name was derived from the French phrase "avoir de pois" goods of weight or property.

The avoirdupois was equivalent to 7, grains, drams of Sincethe avoirdupois pound has been officially defined in most English-speaking countries as 0. Different systems of measurement also developed over time in Asian countries. For example, in ancient India, a measure of weight called the "Satamana" was used, and was equal to the weight of gunja berries.

The measurement of weight was based on the shi, which was equivalent to approximately pounds. The Chi and Zhang were units of length equivalent to approximately 25 centimeters 9. The Chinese also developed a means to ensure accuracy through use of a special size of bowl used for measurements that also made a specific sound when struck — if the sound was off pitch, the measurement was not accurate. InJohn Wilkins proposed a decimal system in which length, area, volume, and mass were linked to each other based on a pendulum that had a beat of one second as a base unit of length.

InGabriel Mouton proposed a decimal system that was instead based on the circumference of the earth, an idea supported by other prominent scientists of the time such as Jean Picard and Christiaan Huygens, but that did not take hold for approximately another years.

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By the mid-eighteenth century, it was clear to nations who traded and exchanged scientific ideas that standardization of weights and measures was necessary. InCharles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, the Prince of Talleyrand, approached the British represented by John Riggs-Miller and the Americans represented by Thomas Jefferson with proposals to define a common standard of length based on the length of a pendulum. In that same year, Thomas Jefferson, presented the "Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measures of the United States," which advocated for a decimal system in which units were related to each other by powers of ten.

A committee that was formed in France comprised of some of the most prominent scientists of the day came to a similar conclusion, and also proposed a decimal system for all weights and measures. Although Congress considered Jefferson's report, it was not adopted.

As such, the measurement system was only implemented in France, and inthe metric system was formally defined in French law. It was not until however that the metric system was officially adopted in France, though it was still not universally observed across the country.A numerical factor used to multiply or divide a quantity when converting from one system of units to another.

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2.1 Unit Conversion and Conversion Factors

Estimation of doses is often based on conversion factors that relate dose to activity concentrations in the environment. Absorbed dose rate conversion factors for outdoor and indoor exposure in typical Nigerian mud houses. Finally, be sure that at least one of the parameters you use to determine your fee schedules is based on the Medicare conversion factor for RVUs. Relative value units. Practice Management Clinic. The conversion factor computations were different for the two versions.

RBRVS: old concepts, bad press. Although yearly conversion factors are purportedly designed to provide updates to the fee schedule, physicians should not expect to reap a windfall. To determine how much a roll or machine is out of level, take the level's reading and multiply it by the conversion factor number of running feet of machine width.

conversion factor

Maintaining level and alignment on your corrugator. Assumed by EIA to be 4. Appendix A: British thermal unit conversion factors. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.

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Dictionary browser? Full browser?By Chris Hren, Peter J. A conversion factor uses your knowledge of the relationships between units to convert from one unit to another.

For example, if you know that there are 2. Geekmajor absentmindedly measures the mass of a sample to be 0. His astute lab assistant, who wants to save the doctor some embarrassment, knows that there are 2.

What does she get? What does he get when he converts this quantity to cubic centimeters? Rookie chemists often mistakenly assume that if there are 2. Although this assumption seems logical at first glance, it leads to catastrophically wrong answers. Remember that cubic units are units of volume and that the formula for volume is. This volume is much greater than 2. To convert units of area or volume using length measurements, square or cube everything in your conversion factor, not just the units, and everything works out just fine.

Christopher Hren is a high school chemistry teacher and former track and football coach. Peter J. About the Book Author Christopher Hren is a high school chemistry teacher and former track and football coach.A unit conversion expresses the same property as a different unit of measurement.

factors of conversion

For instance, time can be expressed in minutes instead of hours, while distance can be converted from miles to kilometers, or feet, or any other measure of length. Often measurements are given in one set of units, such as feet, but are needed in different units, such as chains.

A conversion factor is a numeric expression that enables feet to be changed to chains as an equal exchange. A conversion factor is a number used to change one set of units to another, by multiplying or dividing. When a conversion is necessary, the appropriate conversion factor to an equal value must be used.

Unit Conversion Factors

For example, to convert inches to feet, the appropriate conversion value is 12 inches equal 1 foot. To convert minutes to hours, the appropriate conversion value is 60 minutes equal 1 hour.

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The table is set up so all the units cancel except for the unit desired. To cancel a unit, the same unit must be in the numerator and in the denominator. When you multiply across the table, the top number will be divided by the bottom number, and the result will be the answer in the desired units.

Step 1. Change 3 hours and 36 minutes to the same units. This unit can be hours or minutes.

factors of conversion

Using minutes is easier because the end time value will need to be in seconds. Set up the cancellation table so all units will cancel, except the desired unit, seconds. There are 12, seconds in 3 hours 36 minutes. Notice that the hour units on the top and bottom cancel along with the minutes, leaving seconds as the only unit. Setting up a unit cancellation table helps keep units straight, even for the most seasoned professional firefighter.

These tables are particularly important when more than one unit conversion is necessary to obtain the desired unit. Answers should always be presented with the appropriate number of significant digits.

For information about significant digits and rounding, please review Section 1. How many cups are in a 5-gallon pail? Set up the cancellation table so all units will cancel, except the desired unit, pints. There are 40 pints in 5 gallons.A conversion factor is the number or formula you need to convert a measurement in one set of units to the same measurement in another set of units.

The number is usually given as a numerical ratio or fraction that can be used as a multiplication factor. For example, say you have a length that is measured in feet and you wish to report on it in meters.

If you know that there are 3. One foot is 12 inches long, and the conversion factor of 1 foot to inches is The same length is 0.

There many different types of measurements that sometimes require conversions : length lineararea two dimensional and volume three dimensional are the most common, but you can also use conversion factors to convert mass, speed, density, and force.

factors of conversion

Conversion factors are used for conversions within the imperial system feet, pounds, gallonswithin the International System of Units SI, and the modern form of the metric system: meters, kilograms, liters or across the two.

Remember, the two values must represent the same quantity as each other. For example, it's possible to convert between two units of mass e. Examples of conversion factors include:.

Note that following the equal sign, the units for hours cancel out, leaving only the unit for days.

factors of conversion

Share Flipboard Email. Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph. Chemistry Expert. Helmenstine holds a Ph. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Facebook Facebook Twitter Twitter.If the statutory number of racks in a match are not completed, then all bets will be void. In the event of a match starting but not being completed, bets will be void unless the outcome is already determined.

Unless otherwise stated all Rugby bets are settled on 80 minutes play. The term 80 minutes play includes any stoppage time. Unless otherwise stated Rugby League nines match bets are settled on the specific tournament regulation play and exclude extra-time if played. Are void unless re-arranged and played in the same 'Rugby Week' (Monday - Sunday inclusive UK time). Regular season only unless otherwise stated.

The finishing position of teams at the end of the scheduled programme of matches will determine placings with no allowance for playoffs or subsequent enquiries (and potential point deductions) by the respective leagues.

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To Finish Bottom - Will be settled on the team who finish in the bottom position of the stipulated league upon the completion of the regular season. To Be Relegated - Where market is offered settlement is based upon the rules of the specified league.

For these markets try includes penalty try. For all scoring play markets conversions do not count. In the event of the half-time or full-time result ending in a Tie, then bets will be settled on Any Other option. Score 1st, Lead at Half Time and Win at Full time - Predict the outcome of all three. In the event of the combination not being offered then bets will be settled on Any Other option.

Winning Margin Including Exact and Alternative - For settlement purposes the margin at full-time is used (Tie option is available). Race to Markets - Predict the team to reach a specified points total first (Neither is an available option).

Half Betting - 1st half markets are settled at the end of the 1st half. Lance Todd Trophy - Applies to the Rugby League Challenge Cup Final. The Man of the Match is decided at the end of the game and awarded the Lance Todd Trophy.

Prices are offered for each player participating in the match. Where offered, all markets which indicate Golden Point or Overtime in the title will be settled including all periods of Overtime if played, for settlement purposes.

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All scheduled games must be completed for bets to stand.

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